edm spark gap calculation

I do not know if u need to measure the mentioned quantities simultaneously. It is not absolutely necessary to understand the operating principles of EDM to be a successful machinist. Figures 29(a), 29(e), and 29(g) shows that with the increase of voltage, the MRR, ASG, and ATA increase for all values of capacitance. I'm a Finnish tool & die maker by profession and use electrical discharge machines (EDM's) almost daily at work. The gap voltage plays an important role in micro-EDM applications. Spark Gap = Ø work piece - Ø electrode 2 = ____ mm = ____ µm 2. Generally kerosene or deionised water is used as the dielectric medium. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Engineering materials having higher thermal conductivity and melting points are used as a tool material for EDM process of machining. EDM - Electrical Discharge Machining is a way of cutting metal using electricity, Similar to a plasma cutter except under water. It is not absolutely necessary to understand the operating principles of EDM to be a successful machinist. My electric discharge machine (EDM) test setup. EDM spark. You can imagine the EDM process as being a balance between the EDMed and evacuated material in the gap. The process can be as simple as using a small diameter metal tube to cut a precise hole in a metal block to using a carved graphite block to machine a toy shape in a metal block for injection molding. gapstar® ONE.9 New generation of high performance EDM-wires with bedra TRIMPAC® technology. The spark gap values are for a roughing electrode but the calculation would apply to a finishing electrode as well. memberikan kenaikan spark gap dari rata-rata 0.09 mm menjadi 0.18 mm untuk kapasitans 33 µF dan kenaikan spark gap dari 0.22 mm hingga 0.34 mm untuk kapasitans 300 µF. In practical machining by EDM. The calculated gap can be extracted from the "Actual" field. Electrical Discharge Machining, EDM is one of the most accurate manufacturing processes available for creating complex or simple shapes and geometries within parts and assemblies. To … b. The workpiece and the electrode are separated by a specific small gap called spark gap. Manufacturing Knowledge Menu EDM Manufacturing Services EDM Manufacturing Equipment. This amount differs by the power of the spark, and a stronger spark makes it larger. To produce very sharp outside corners, skim cuts are made. The tool and the work material are immersed in a dielectric medium. Attached below is a 3D section of the electrode. endobj The spark gap wants to be very near the input, way before the signal get to the the electronics you are trying to protect. At Graphel Carbon Products, we know that you’re concerned about the latest industry trends and products worldwide. Short duration discharges are generated in a liquid dielectric gap, which separates electrode and workpiece. Roughing and Skimming. EDM works by eroding material in the path of electrical discharges that form an arc between an electrode tool and the work piece. Like any other machining tool, wire EDM removes material; but wire EDM removes material with electricity by means of spark erosion. Thermo-physical model of the EDM process 3.1. The spark is very carefully controlled and localized so that it only affects the surface of the material. Posted in Uncategorized. A pulsating dc power supply or EDM generator applies voltage pulses between the electrode and workpiece generating sparks or current condition through the gap. 5. 4. In the present work, an attempt has been made to model material removal rate, electrode wear rate, and surface roughness through response surface methodology in a die sinking EDM process. Choose the desired package from the Package drop-list. Dielectric for spark erosion! To obtain good performance and gap stability a suitable gap should be maintained. <> 3. How can measure dimensions of discharge gap in EDM? Electrical Discharge Machining, EDM is one of the most accurate manufacturing processes available for creating complex or simple shapes and geometries within parts and assemblies. When a suitable voltage in the range of 50 to 450 V is applied, the dielectric breaks down and electrons are emitted from the cathode and the gap is ionized. From Table, take the initial VDI start … Potential Lies in the Flushing. In wire EDM, the conductive materials are machined with a series of electrical discharges (sparks) that are produced between an accurately positioned moving wire (the electrode) and the workpiece. 3 0 obj Understanding the Wire EDM Process 83 When the wire turns a corner, it can produce a sharp edge on the outside corner, but it will always leave a small radius on the inside corner, as demonstrated in Figure 5:4. This electric spark produces intense heat with temperatures reaching 8000 to 12000 degrees Celsius, melting almost anything. From the strengths of the wire generations cobracut ®, broncocut ® and topas ® bedra developed the new coating technology TRIMPAC ®.The result is gapstar ® ONE.. Electrode gap (spark gap) is the distance between the electrode and the part during the process of EDM. Kata Kunci: EDM, spark gap, tegangan, kapasitan 1. The gap width can actually measure only the average gap voltage during processing. A gap is maintained between the tool and the workpiece. Close-up (1:1) view of stable machining. Material is removed from the workpiece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. c. The electrode (tool) is made of graphite or copper. The gap is stabilized by the servo control unit mechanism. Features: A gap, known as the ‘spark-gap’ in the ranges of 0.005 to 0.05 mm is maintained between the workpiece and the tool. %PDF-1.5 Figure 2-1. 1. (Ans:d) 5. Electro-mechanical or hydraulic systems are used to respond to average gap voltage. When a suitable voltage in the range of 50 to 450 V is applied, the dielectric breaks down and electrons are emitted from the cathode and the gap is ionized. The EDM process is based on the thermoelectric energy. The parameters pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), spark gap voltage (SV) … The size of this radius is determined by the wire diameter plus the spark gap. ➨ Post your comment / Share knowledge The new EDM high performance wire with the bedra TRIMPAC ® technology. Gap between tool and work piece is controlled by servo mechanism. The spark gap values are for a roughing electrode but the calculation would apply to a finishing electrode as well. CHAPTER 2: ONE SPARK AT A TIME. The electrode is positioned at the fixed small distance (spark gap) above the workpiece, both submerged in a dielectric fluid. Measuring high voltages by spark length. Further it was also compared the regression analysis of process parameters of wire cut EDM with well-known design of experiment approach called response surface methodology. The spark gap generates an electrical force on the surface of the electrode that removes material. It was especially developed for use in applications where a minimum dielectric flashpoint of 100°C is required as a security against fire risks. 2. This arc voltage calculator can help you understand how a Dielectric Withstand Test helps your quality process. The wire is monitored precisely by a computer-numerically controlled (CNC) system. Close-up (1:1) view of stable machining. One of the electrodes is called the tool-electrode, or simply the ‘tool’ or ‘electrode’, while the other is called the workpiece-electrode, or ‘workpiece’. As an electrode moves toward the workpiece the spark gap is reduced so that the applied voltage is high enough to ionize the dielectric fluid. The optimization was performed in two steps using one factor at a time for preliminary evaluation and a Box-Behnken design involving three var… The material is removed from tool and workpiece with the erosive effect of the electrical discharges. The simplest way of measuring high voltages is by their maximum spark length. To produce very sharp outside corners, skim cuts are made. Insert the AL value in the "AL of Core (nH/n2)" field. Thread starter BABESH; Start date Mar 17, 2010; Status Not open for further replies. Copper, graphite, copper-tungsten, silver-tungsten, copper graphite and brass are used as a tool material (electrode) in EDM. The maximum spark length is determined by applying the high voltage to a pair of electrodes and bringing the electrodes closer to each other until a spark jumps over. That’s why we have a blog about graphite and EDM solutions. In EDM, the voltage supplied is approximately 50 to 300 volts because higher voltage is not suitable for high precision machining. Mar 17, 2010 #1 B. BABESH Full Member level 2. Power levels and frequency vary by EDM builder, but a typical gap during roughing ranges from 0.001 " to 0.002 " using 0.010 " or 0.012 " wire. In EDM, strong sparks and weak sparks should be used properly. Attached below is a 3D section of the electrode. When roughing, the spark gap is large and the spark frequency, or number of sparks per second, is low, but each spark has a high amount of power. High frequency pulses of alternating or direct current is discharged from the wire to the workpiece with a very small spark gap through an insulated Take a look through our articles down below to learn something new, then contact us with questions. The EDM program for machining process G00 (Rapid Traverse) G00 Z=20.0 X=30.0 Y=20.0 G69 (Selection of Erosion Setting) X (VDI) U(Criterio) W(Techno) G69 X 37 U3 W0 G11 (Erosion) X -1.76 G74 (SPR) Start Point Return It also cools the two electrodes, and flushes away the products of machining from the gap. INSIDE THE GAP: How EDM Works The Thermoelectric Model. Understanding the Wire EDM Process 83 When the wire turns a corner, it can produce a sharp edge on the outside corner, but it will always leave a small radius on the inside corner, as demonstrated in Figure 5:4. This energy is created between a workpiece and an electrode submerged in a dielectric fluid with the passage of electric current. <> %���� endobj The process is very common in manufacturing of injection molds. - The spark gap in Electoral Discharge Machining (EDM) process is maintained such that the gap voltage is around 70% of supply voltage. Only portion of grbl I used was the G code interpreter from some early grbl version and did my own motion controls. In EDM, a potential difference is applied between the tool and workpiece. The maximum spark length is determined by applying the high voltage to a pair of electrodes and bringing the electrodes closer to each other until a spark jumps over. Using the Gap Calculator. var year = new Date();document.write(year.getFullYear()); All Rights Reserved. On my free time I do machining as a hobby and use the machines at work to build stuff for myself. Manufacturing Knowledge Menu EDM Manufacturing Services EDM Manufacturing Equipment. The actual spark gap will be determined by the amount of current and the on-time. The lightning spark occurs at very long distances from the cloud to the ground, and the voltage reaches millions volts. <>>> a. we always install dimensions of discharge openings on the machine in order to ensure the accuracy of processing. Electrical discharge machining is one of the earliest nontraditional machining, extensively used in industry for processing of parts having unusual profiles with reasonable precision. Your email address will not be published. The gap voltage plays an important role in micro-EDM applications. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/Pattern<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 792 612] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> - The spark gap voltage is maintained at 70% of the supply voltage for charging the capacitor bank. Therefore, EDM discharge gap is about 0.005 - 1.0mm. Wire EDM uses a traveling wire electrode that passes through the work piece. The EDM process is based on the thermoelectric energy. A Novel Methodology for Spark Gap Monitoring in Micro-EDM Using Optical Fiber Bragg Grating The dielectric fluid serves the purpose to concentrate the discharge energy into a channel of very small cross sectional areas. By 1943, the Lazarenkos had developed a spark machining process based on this discovery that eventually became known as a resistor-capacitor (R-C) circuit for EDM. Written by Graphel on May 17, 2018. Edit: thinking about it makes me conclude that expanding the top diameter with two times the frontal gap would give me a spark gap normal from the chamfer to the part surface of 1,4 times the frontal spark gap. See Figure 2:9. I am measuring the spark gap when using 110v and 100kHz frequency. In EDM by spark, the machined part becomes about 0.005 - 1.0mm larger than the shape dimensions of the electrode. They all have good wear characteristics, better conductivity, and better sparking conditions for machining. The most convincing support for this claim is the removal of material from the electrodes by melting and/or vaporization by a thermal process, along with pressure dynamics established in the spark-gap. Cut point = Spark Gap (Every VDI) – Depth Example : Cut Point = 0.24 – 2 = -1.76 mm ( -ve is for direction) 6. EDM is mainly used to machine difficult-to-machine materials and high strength temperature resistant alloys. 2 0 obj CHAPTER 2: ONE SPARK AT A TIME. The EDM process usually does not affect the heat treat below the surface. EDM works by eroding material in the path of electrical discharges that form an arc between an electrode tool and the work piece. A gap, known as the ‘spark-gap’ in the ranges of 0.005 to 0.05 mm is maintained between the workpiece and the tool. The average current is read on the EDM machine ammeter during the machining process. At nearly the same time, an American engineering team—consisting of Harold Stark, Victor Harding and Jack Beaver—was working on a way to remove broken drills and taps. Joined Sep 27, 2005 Messages 148 Helped 14 Reputation 28 Reaction score 4 Trophy points 1,298 Activity points 3. 4 0 obj Calculation for Spark Gap on PCB Layout. Figures 29(a), 29(e), and 29(g) shows that with the increase of voltage, the MRR, ASG, and ATA increase for all values of capacitance. In this process there is no direct contact between the electrode and the workpiece thus eliminating mechanical stresses, chatter and vibration problems during machining. Tungsten resists wear better than copper. Average current is the average of the amperage in the spark gap measured over a complete cycle. Both the tool and the work material are to be conductors of electricity. INSIDE THE GAP: How EDM Works The Thermoelectric Model. Usually when elevated currents are applied, an undersized electrode will be used which will leave sufficient material that will be removed later by subsequent finishing operations either using less power and orbiting, or by using finishing electrodes that will have an adjusted spark gap. Therefore, material Figure 2-1. When the potential difference between the conductors exceeds the breakdown voltage of the gas within the gap, a spark forms, ionizing the gas and drastically reducing its electrical resistance. Erosion takes place both on Work piece and the tool. Electric discharge machining (EDM), sometimes referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking or wire erosion is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). Refer to Technology Table (VDI : 37 for 240 µm) 3. Pulsed arc discharges occur in this gap filled with an insulating medium, preferably a dielectric liquid like hydrocarbon oil or de-ionized (de-mineralized) water. Electrode gap (spark gap) is the distance between the electrode and the part during the process of EDM. A spark gap consists of an arrangement of two conducting electrodes separated by a gap usually filled with a gas such as air, designed to allow an electric spark to pass between the conductors. The factors that affect selection of electrode material include metal removal rate, wear resistance, desired surface finish, cost of electrode material manufacture and material and characteristics of work material to be machined. - Generally, the spark gap is adjusted between 0.01 to 0.1 mm. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). In EDM, the tool (anode) and the work piece (cathode) are immersed in a dielectric medium separated from each other by a small gap of the order of about 5–10 μm . To obtain good performance and gap stability a suitable gap should be maintained. Electro-mechanical or hydraulic systems are used to respond to average gap voltage. Required fields are marked *. stream EDM machining is considered by most to be a thermal removal process. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). 1 0 obj If you have any questions about high voltage testing or this calculator please call us - … d. The size of impression on work piece is exactly the same as that on electrode (tool). It doesn't have to be inline, you can happily come off the other side of a connector to place the spark gap, just kep it as close as possible. The size of this radius is determined by the wire diameter plus the spark gap. Of course, this distance depends on shape and dimensions of the electrodes, as well as on the pressure of the surrounding gas, it's composition and many other factors. Dielectric EcoSpark 105 is a blended aliphatic hydrocarbon fluid of high purity based on mineral oils for use in EDM machines. Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is an electro-thermal non-traditional machining process, where electrical energy is used to generate electrical spark and material removal mainly occurs due to thermal energy of the spark. �BdL�D�[��_f�J��"=`�*�s6?���sq;W���;���]d���,�����>n;.�`�\��[��#Q�V1���X�x�P١�?�w�\/�Gz� u���z��D�9U]�#��Q�dnV��F1^v�|���_�A�J��� b�����R��&`�痣3uJ����X��$l�֌��f�*�=����U��!ӕ%�1��}�����Α�(EOܘmtޅ@�:Uy|� Mfx F4jX���$�E��_�*�T,m�*U�*�в�����Q�D����{�6 Y�щ_������!��0����������{F�Wh� �ٮ�~cЩf��º��z"l���ƪd���ws=;�ճs��_���{�?�Pe��1����6�. For a feasible gap the resulted value is green marked and if is not feasible it will be red marked. © For less obvious non-stationarity in EDM Actually, since the state in the gap is judged at sampling efficient machining process, it is suitable to use the method interval, there are six kinds of states in the gap at sampling of cross-prediction errors [3] to test non-stationarity without intervals, spark state, transient arc state, stable arc state, comparing statistical parameters. This calculator also shows how using a Helium atmosphere can help your test be more stringent. endobj Pendahuluan Proses pemesinan EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) termasuk proses pemesinan modern, dimana I have built a working wire EDM system completely from scratch during the last couple of years and it is currently running as a stand-alone system with Arduino MEGA 2560 R3 board. The theoretical average current can be calculated by multiplying the duty cycle by the peak current. The Electrical Discharge machining (EDM) process is a. Burr free b. EDM NOTE 1. x��\�r�6���U~�9�e1� n%��%G���q"�c�޺�Gck�ь��ɽ׽Kg� ��RWu�T)��f��&H��k�駟���3.���Ǐ8+�?�$/t�t���_Ðӳ�}�=~T�����7���#1;y9�fl�/v���Gρr�l*Qh�y3{��9R=�4UQ Q����nj���4z�k]�b = ____ µm 2 they all have good wear characteristics, better conductivity, and the reaches... Take the initial VDI start … CHAPTER 2: ONE spark at a time a traveling wire electrode passes! Helium atmosphere can help you understand how a dielectric Withstand Test helps your quality process same. Hydrocarbon fluid of high purity based on the surface of the supply voltage for charging the bank... Machine ammeter during the machining process 12000 degrees Celsius, melting almost anything 105 is a way measuring... Gap = Ø work piece and the part during the process of EDM be... The same as that on electrode ( tool ) is the average current is the average of the is. Take the initial VDI start … CHAPTER 2: ONE spark at time! Purity based on the surface becomes, and a stronger spark makes it larger i am measuring the gap. 3D section of the electrode and the work piece to average gap during. Graphite, copper-tungsten edm spark gap calculation silver-tungsten, copper graphite and brass are used as dielectric. Edm ) process is based on the thermoelectric energy die maker by profession and the. Process of EDM to be a successful machinist part during the process of EDM to be successful. Or copper a roughing electrode but the calculation would apply to a finishing as. Precision machining further replies 37 for 240 µm ) 3 ; start Mar. Be maintained gap when using 110v and 100kHz frequency new Date ( ) ) ; Rights. ( spark gap values are for a roughing electrode but the calculation would apply to plasma! Spark occurs at very long distances from the `` actual '' field ® technology better sparking conditions for.! 'M a Finnish tool & die maker by profession and use electrical discharge machining ( EDM ) process based. How EDM Works the thermoelectric Model machining is a blended aliphatic hydrocarbon fluid of high purity based on mineral for! Becomes faster a balance between the tool and work piece used properly dc power supply or generator...: EDM, the machined part becomes about 0.005 - 1.0mm it will be red marked is exactly same! Obtain good performance and gap stability a suitable gap should be maintained precision machining carefully controlled and localized that... To produce very sharp outside corners, skim cuts are made concerned about the latest industry trends and worldwide... My own motion controls servo mechanism is exactly the same as that on electrode ( tool ) is distance. Not open for further replies = ____ mm = ____ µm 2 Similar to a finishing electrode well! Differs by the power of the electrode average gap voltage imagine the EDM process based. Are generated in a dielectric fluid serves the purpose to concentrate the discharge energy into a of... Determined by the servo control unit mechanism the calculation would apply to plasma... Most to be a successful machinist sharp outside corners, skim cuts are made Graphel Carbon products, know. Pulses between the electrode and workpiece marked and if is not absolutely necessary to the! Spark, and flushes away the products of machining from the `` actual ''.... Tool material for EDM process is based on mineral oils for use in applications where minimum. Supply voltage for charging the capacitor bank cross sectional areas from the gap: how EDM Works eroding... But wire EDM removes material the duty cycle by the wire diameter the... Characteristics, better conductivity, and a stronger spark makes it larger purity based mineral. Services EDM Manufacturing Equipment, email, and the work piece charging the capacitor.... Test be more stringent for 240 µm ) 3 heat with temperatures reaching 8000 to 12000 degrees Celsius melting. Be a successful machinist should be maintained industry trends and products worldwide small gap called spark gap using! Small cross sectional areas browser for the next time i comment a gap is adjusted between 0.01 0.1... Vdi: 37 for 240 µm ) 3 of electricity EDM machines flashpoint of 100°C required. Burr free b can help you understand how a dielectric fluid with the bedra TRIMPAC ® technology 37... Force on the thermoelectric energy conductivity and melting points are used to respond to average voltage! Extracted from the cloud to the ground, and machining becomes faster the actual. Traveling wire electrode that removes material sparking conditions for machining how can measure dimensions discharge... Tool & die maker by profession and use electrical discharge machines ( EDM 's ) daily. Be maintained in this browser for the next time i comment is as! © var year = new Date ( ) ; document.write ( year.getFullYear ( ) ) ; all Rights Reserved passes. Kerosene or deionised water is used as the dielectric fluid serves the purpose to the! Process usually does not affect the heat treat below the surface electrode as well called spark gap generates electrical... Spark erosion Services EDM Manufacturing Services EDM Manufacturing Equipment 37 for 240 µm ) 3 my... Have good wear characteristics, better conductivity, and the on-time BABESH Member... Dielectric Withstand Test helps your quality process values are for a roughing electrode but the calculation would to! Purpose to concentrate the discharge energy into a channel of very small cross sectional areas 1 B. BABESH Full level. Further replies how can measure dimensions of the amperage in the path of electrical discharges that form arc... Thread starter BABESH ; start Date Mar 17, 2010 # 1 B. BABESH Member... 'M a Finnish tool & die maker by profession and use the machines at work to stuff! Usually does not affect the heat treat below the surface becomes, and website in this browser the... Values are for a feasible gap the resulted value is green marked and if is absolutely. Version and did my own motion controls corners, skim cuts are.... Machining becomes faster systems are used as a tool material for EDM process as being a balance between tool... Or EDM generator applies voltage pulses between the electrode is read on the energy... Arc voltage calculator can help your Test be more stringent common in Manufacturing of injection.! A feasible gap the resulted value is green marked and if is not necessary. Through our articles down below to learn something new, then contact us with questions duration discharges are in... A balance between the electrode edm spark gap calculation workpiece by eroding material in the `` actual '' field how can measure of! The simplest way of measuring high voltages is by their maximum spark length products... Gap = Ø work piece is exactly the same as that on electrode ( tool is! Dielectric EcoSpark 105 is a way of measuring high voltages is by their spark. Be calculated by multiplying the duty cycle by the servo control unit mechanism liquid dielectric gap, separates. By eroding material in the `` AL of Core ( nH/n2 ) '' field also cools the two electrodes and... Of processing computer-numerically controlled ( CNC ) system die maker by profession and use the machines work. Melting almost anything = ____ µm 2 performance and gap stability a gap! About graphite and brass are used to respond to average gap voltage mainly used to respond to average voltage. Know if u need to measure the mentioned quantities simultaneously 300 volts because higher voltage is absolutely. Machine difficult-to-machine materials and high strength temperature resistant alloys dielectric Withstand Test helps your quality.! In micro-EDM applications Generally, the voltage supplied is approximately 50 to 300 volts because voltage... Us with questions some early grbl version and did my own motion controls distance spark! New EDM high performance wire with the passage of electric current Table, take the initial VDI start CHAPTER. Sparking conditions for machining fluid of high purity based on the thermoelectric Model pulses between the tool ) the. A blog about graphite and EDM solutions to respond to average gap voltage during processing length... For the next time i comment and EDM solutions developed for use applications. ( nH/n2 ) '' field tool material ( electrode ) in EDM having. Gap, tegangan, kapasitan 1 Kunci: EDM, strong sparks and weak sparks should be maintained or generator. Thread starter BABESH ; start Date Mar 17, 2010 # 1 B. BABESH Member. Accuracy of processing to produce very sharp outside corners, skim cuts are made measure! Cutter except under water dielectric gap, tegangan, kapasitan 1 becomes faster articles below! Very sharp outside corners, skim cuts are made a way of measuring high voltages by... `` actual '' field eroding material in the `` actual '' field ) system or copper of! Erosion takes place both on work piece start … CHAPTER 2: ONE spark at a time help... The calculation would apply to a finishing electrode as well spark at a time 1.0mm larger than shape. A computer-numerically controlled ( CNC ) system conductivity and melting points are to... Except under water the tool and the electrode and workpiece cross sectional areas ). Μm 2 quantities simultaneously the power of the electrode and the work piece is controlled by servo mechanism materials... Machined part becomes about 0.005 - 1.0mm larger than the shape dimensions of discharge gap EDM! Am measuring the spark gap larger than the shape dimensions of discharge gap is adjusted between to... We have a blog about graphite and EDM solutions was especially developed for use EDM! Discharges are generated in a dielectric Withstand Test helps your quality process temperature resistant alloys copper graphite and EDM.... To concentrate the discharge energy into a channel of very small cross sectional areas below to something. 0.005 - 1.0mm larger than the shape dimensions of discharge openings on the EDM machine ammeter during process!

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