teaching geometry through dance

Educ. J Adol. Understanding Geometry in the Dance Studio 3 spatial reasoning skills { such skills are vital for both dance and geometry students. The study investigates dance … Have you tried using dance to help students master geometry? Bharatanatyam uses the different sign systems such as music, dance, and expression to convey the same message, which is transmediation of the sign systems (Magee and Leeth, 2014). However, five of the writers recorded rectangle as parallelogram. Research in Dance Education 14(1):28-38. 6-17. These methods do not  accommodate  the  variety  of learners in classrooms today. And so, it only makes sense to parallel dance, the geometry of dance. Since I am a very hand[s] on learner, dance has definitely helped reinforce those concepts” (15). It is our job to keep them engaged and eager to learn. This program demonstrates more complicated theories and will enhance students’ creative abilities. Res. This highly codified style of dance originated in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India in the 4th century (Banerjee 2013; Sangeetha and Ragothaman, 2014). More than Words: The Generative Power of transmediation for learning. For example, the exercise “choreographing algebra” helps conceptualize the idea of a variable. The participants in this study were from elementary to university level, who have exposure to dance and music through the dance and music schools and the regional organizations to which they belong. Parents take their children to dance class for cultural preservation. Erlbaum. Dance, mathematics, and rote memorization. The analysis is based on the responses to the questions I posed to the participants. The writer also acknowledges that she is a kinesthetic learner so dance has helped her to visualize diamond and isosceles triangle. The schools of Bharatnatyam include Kalkshetra, Pandannluru, Melattur, Tanjavoor, and Vazhuvoor and these styles are region specific to the south Indian states of Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. This integration was possible through socio-cultural learning (Vygotsky, 1978), multiple intelligences (Gardner 1999), and integrative learning (Nowcek 2011; Zuckerbros, 2011). ... "As people we all want to understand the world around us and we do that through our own cultural lens. Materials development in language teaching. The following figure depicts the relationship between learning styles in math and dance (Figure 2). Plus it further reviews our vocabulary words. Sangeetha S, Ragothaman Y (2014). Magee AP, Leeth JH (2014). Cultural awareness. Hence, dance may be an engaging and appropriate medium, to help students, especially students who are visual and kinesthetic learners, learn basic geometric shapes. Students who struggle with math sometimes shine when learning geometry since it is so visual. Semiotics includes semantic (meaning), syntactic (structure), and pragmatic (effect) characteristics (Barthes 1987). This gives me an opportunity to do some formative assessment as I observe which students seem to understand the vocabulary, and which groups could demonstrate some examples of positive and negative space. More specifically, the books and resources demonstrate how to teach dance curriculum and how to use it as a fundamental teaching tool. (c) Most of the participants dance or watch their siblings and friends dance. Key words: Asian Indian students, Bharatanatyam, geometry, learning styles, teaching and learning. This participant is able to identify one important skill necessary for both dance and math – memorization of concepts. The categories are driven by a theory and in this study; the content is defined based on the different learning styles used to understand the basic geometric shapes in the dance jathi. Short Activity. The participants of this study were Asian Indian American students attending schools in three major cities in the southwest region of the United States. Crossref, Dunn R, Dunn K (2012). Students are taken on a journey through the unnamed main character’s life and neighborhood where they are able to explore a multitude of shapes with her. (accessed on August 10, 2015). Mathematics Teacher, v105 n5 p346-351 Dec 2011. Choreography math: Teaching geometric concepts through dance movement and design. Hence, teaching geometric shapes through dance may enable students to grasp the skill set quickly as compared to teaching using the traditional methods of lecturing and through board work (Jensen, 2000). Auditory learners seek out aural instructions and logical/mathematical learners may look for information presented in a calculating and analytical fashion (Gardner 1999). Dance, mathematics, and rote memorization. Teaching maths as storytelling and dance. This dancer is both visual and kinesthetic learner. Transmediation is the connection between two sign systems that has to be created through critical thinking and it is a multiplicative process (Tembrioti and Tsangardou, 2014). Dancers use symmetry and geometry to improve their performances and make them visually appealing. Therefore, Bharatanatyam may be an engaging alternate method for students who have the prior knowledge and experience of this dance to learn the basic geometric shapes. J. Phys. Ph.D. Crossref. Fold it in half diagonally, both ways, and show the lines of symmetry you created. Adult Lit. Mastering Geometry Concepts with Dance It is so interesting for me to observe students learning geometry in the elementary classroom simply because it is so different than other math concepts. Copyright © 2021 Author(s) retain the Definition of the Content is the different theories or themes that emerge in the text. From reader's theater to math dances: Bright ideas to differentiation happen. The author rephrased the categories later. Body uncovered. The last set of students wrote down all of the previously mentioned shapes and the following shapes – trapezoid, diamond, acute and obtuse angles, rhombus, and hexagon. Further, Rodenfeld (2013, 213) recognizes the skill set needed in both of these disciplines of math and dance, “choreograph, decide, collaborate, experiment, tinker, revise, play, apply, represent, analyze, discover. Mastering Geometry Concepts with Dance It is so interesting for me to observe students learning geometry in the elementary classroom simply because it is so different than other math concepts. Bharatnatyam is orchestrated body movements that are synchronized to Carnatic music. Due to the fact that I started learning Bharatanatyam in the fifth grade, I had already learned the basic concepts of math. A demonstration of the importance of using correct mathematical language. Lazonov G (1981). http://sangeethas.wordpress.com/2014/10/09/know-thy-dancer-indrani-rahman/ (accessed March15, 2015). This unit extends the students' mathematical investigations through the kinaesthetic activities in dance. The quantitative data was collected and analyzed to draw conclusions from the results (see step 4). Bharatanatyam is a highly codified and schematized Asian Indian style of classical dance that accommodates the different kinds of learners. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. An epistemological glance at the constructivist approach: Consructivist learning in Dewey, Piaget, and Montessori. Further, transmediation can produce a higher level of learning. Moore C, Linder S (2012). The semantic aspect comes from the word(s) and context, while the syntactic is the grammatical structures, and the pragmatic is the effect the signs have on the reader, listener, or watcher. Westreich, G. (2002). It originated in and continues to be used in an arts-in-education course for preservice teachers, as well as in a preser-vice teacher geometry 58(4): 327-336. Teaching Geometry through Problem-Based Learning. No, geometry is much more complicated than what is in a dance and the steps. Jensen E (2000). This may be through song, dance, movement, pen and paper, or visual demonstrations. Conceptual understanding of shape and space by Norwegi-reading: Norwegian students in elementary school. Teachers have recognized the benefits of teaching math using interactive and engaging methods (Dale, 1946, 1996; Klingenberg, 2012; and Redmond, 2011). Recreation Dance 73(6):12-12+. New York, NY: Basic Books. Dale E (1946). Videos are created by fellow teachers for their students using the guided notes from the unit. Childhood Education 75(4):68-72. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ584441, (accessed June 10, 2015). Using transmediation in elementary preservice teacher education: A literacy and science collaborative. Categorical analysis is dividing the text into smaller units for analysis. Mathematical concepts such as Geometry can be introduced to students by teaching them dancing. This student seems to suggest that math learning should be done in a fun way and not by using monotonous methods. F. Steier, 53-62, London: Sage. It’s Easy When You Move to the Numbers! The authors have not declared any conflict of interests. Then, after quick reminders about safety and that third-graders are not trained to lift one another like Pilobolus does, students return to their groups to finish their choreography. The  study also enabled the researcher to  gauge the relationship between perceptive, kinesthetic, and visual spheres of learning and the heightened level of knowledge formation through the integration of dance and math. Next, I tallied the geometrical shapes by recording all of them. They prefer learning math-utilizing dance. My shishyas [disciples] are like a long-term painting in progress. 1. (1998, 113-114) describe that “When two or more judges are involved in sorting contents into categories, this can be done independently, to allow the calculation of the interjudge reliability, or jointly, to create higher sensitivity to the text and its meaning to different readers.”. Agents of integration: Understanding transfer as a rhetorical act. Little kids have wild imaginations, and repetition becomes exhausting for them. looked at teaching geometry utilizing Bharatanatyam. The learner builds knowledge based on her understanding of the world and the interaction with the materials presented. Data was analyzed using categorical content analysis supported by Leiblich et al. If you’ve ever struggled to keep your students’ attention during your middle or high school algebra and geometry classes, you know just how important it is to mix it up a bit with creative teaching ideas. The concrete operational child between the ages of 7 and 11 can classify objects according to several features. 21 of 22 survey takers: their visualization abilities had increased “The 3-d image we created with bodies is now something that will come to mind anytime I think of a Platonic solid. Crossref, Poursabahian JP (2012). He also likes to seek out information while watching the visual representation of the shapes. In addition, the parallel form of mixed methods using a conversion design in which qualitative data can be converted into quantitative data was utilized (Mertens, 2010). http://utsa.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=674679, (accessed June 05, 2015). This dancer is kinesthetic, spatial, and logical thinker. Dr. Iyengar emailed the YouTube clip using ‘safe share TV’ link and gave each one of the students three weeks time to respond to her email request. During the author’s observations of young adults learning Bharatanatyam, she realized that dance could be used to teach children valuable skills including basic geometric shapes such as line, square, rectangle, and triangle. In addition, Asian Indian students have a reputation of excelling in Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) fields. You don’t have to be a trained performer to use the ideas below, and with any luck, they may help push your results graph a little further up the y-axis! Use interactive geometry teaching techniques to get through to them. Transmediation helps promote different ways of knowing and not just the linguistic modes of representation (Siegel, 1995). Dance Equations is a math dance program that goes beyond clapping, rudimentary motor skills, simple patterning and basic mathematical concepts. Inspiring young mathematicians one dance step at a time. experiential learning { math students, especially in a liberal arts math course, can bene- t from and enjoy active learning approaches, which are naturally more common for dance … I also have students create visual flow charts to see how quadrilaterals can be compared and contrasted, and we measure every angle with the corner of a piece of paper. A preliminary inquiry of Bharatnatyam students’ percep-tion of integrating mathematics and dance suggested that Asian Indian American students could learn math through culturally specific dance called Bharatnatyam. New York: Basic Books, Inc (accessed August 10, 2015). Ramanath BS (2009). Crossref. Cook SW, Yip T, Meadow S (2013). For example, dance has been used in treating depression, teaching languages and mathematics. Math is boring because the teachers write on the board or talk all the time. Using transmediation in elementary preservice teacher education: A literacy and science collaborative. Dancers must become proficient with patterns and different stage formations while performing and students of mathematics must master skill set used in problem solving such as congruence, symmetry, shapes, and angles. She needs to picture the shapes formed and she needs to perform the shapes herself through bodily movements to better understand the shapes. Owl Magazine Cover. Bharatanatyam is about having straight lines. Grade 3 / Math / Geometry Show more Teaching Channel is a thriving online community where teachers can watch, share, and learn diverse techniques to help every student grow. The best fun anyone can have learning maths! They mi The study investigates dance … (YDS) Descriptors: Concept Mapping, Geometric Concepts, Geometry, Interdisciplinary … If dance is used then we have to move and there will be excitement in class. This participant also identified the basic shapes and acknowledged that dance aided them in memorization of the shapes. “ Being able to relate that aramandi is a diamond or that hand[s] joined together to say namaste form an isosceles triangle can help students grasp the different shapes and their abilities to transform much easier more so than when it is just a theory on a piece of paper. Strat. Definition of the Content: The text was categorized based on my perceptions of how the participants observed their learning using one or more of the multiple intelligences. / Revue canadienne de l'éducation 20(4):455-475. Dance movement therapy for depression. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. J Adol. In turn, some students who love calculating can be somewhat turned off by the many vocabulary words that accompany this topic. Students who struggle with math sometimes shine when learning geometry … Adaptation of Bharatanatyam dance pedagogy for multicultural classrooms: Questions and relevance in North American university setting. 64(3):373-388. Learning geometry through real-world application will aid most of your students in understanding the importance of geometry in their world. When I dance this, it is clear to me (5). I couldn't learn it, and I can't teach it. All of the other information is ignored in the selected text. Evaluating Impacts Spatial reasoning. The writer is able to articulate how skill sets acquired in one discipline   is   helpful   in  another  domain  if  the  proficiencies  are  complimentary to each other. Some points to consider are: We need to include more justifications, informal proofs, and "why" questions in math teaching during elementary and middle school. However, it is important to bridge the movement to paper, since that’s how students will need to demonstrate their proficiency. Mertens DM (2010). Sample Pages. Dance is also a beneficial medium to teach basic geometric shapes to young children because dance is an engaging art curriculum that can be used in schools. Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Dr Matthews realised you could help children struggling with maths by linking it to their own stories about the world. In regards to teaching math concepts, many basic concepts of geometry found in the mudras and stances are repeated over and over in multiple dances so it gets better ingrained in the mind. The visual, spatial, and aesthetic elements are visible in this Jathi. Teaching maths as storytelling and dance. Galeet W (2012). Yes, I think we can do math using dance because every move they make they could measure it and add it up and get the total. They also address the benefits of movement and learning in the classroom. For the purpose of this study, a figure (Figure 1[v1] ) is included with the number of geometrical shapes the study participants identified through watching the dance and a pie chart with percentages of figures identified by participants. Bharatnatyam dancers can be visual, spatial/kinesthetic, auditory, and logical/mathematical. For example, “SHINE’s curriculum uses kinesthetic learning to help our students better understand and retain material. The author will use “…the contents collected in each category …descriptively to formulate a picture of the content universe in certain groups of people or cultures” (Leblich et al., 1998, 114). Being able to relate that aramandi is a diamond or that hand[s] joined  together to say namaste form an isosceles triangle can help students grasp the  different shapes and their abilities to transform much easier more so than when it is just a theory on a piece of paper. Understanding the elements of geometry is critical when using movement because without it, the movement looks disjointed and unintentional. Jiesamfoek H (2012). Circles (Geometry Curriculum - Unit 10) UPDATE: This unit now contains a Google document with: (1) Links to instructional videos. Later, in the 20th century, Rukmini Devi Arundal introduced Bharatnatyam to the west (Samson, 2010). New Delhi, India: Sage Publications. Crossref. Mahwah, NJ: Gordon & Breach. 106(8):453-465. The first two questions are brief responses and the third question is a narrative response, where students write about how they can or cannot learn basic geometric shapes using Bharatanatyam. (b) The participants’ parents are either professionals or have successful careers. Crossref. The placement of hands diagonally can represent a cut through a shape. All of the participants are second generation Asian Indian Americans, who live and go to schools in the US. Dance and play. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15290824.8872204, (accessed on July, 20, 2015). Decolonizing dance curriculum in higher education: One credit at a time. Rosenfeld (2013), a trained percussive dancer, uses dance to teach her elementary students to learn to create different shapes. Chodorow J (2013). Note: As an extension or in place of these performances, students could take pictures of the performers as they create each geometrical movement and label the geometry with an app such as Skitch or Seesaw. We like regular geometrical shapes for the same reason, and these often form the basis for dance. See more ideas about Teaching geometry, High school math, Teaching math. I model the process using the document camera, and I have a couple of student experts circulate to help other students who get stuck. http://uq5sd9vt7m.search.serialssolutions.com, (accessed June 5, 2015). Dietiker  and Brakoniecki (2014) point out that aesthetic dimension of mathematics learning experiences is not addressed in schools and it needs attention. Social constructivism theorists "believe that much can be learned from investigating an individual's sense-making strategies as he or she attempts to understand mathematical ideas" (Lambdin and Westcott, 2007, 15). J Math. This is an advanced concept that can be understood by a student who has strong knowledge of both the disciplines of math and dance. Five of the participants listed all of the shapes from simple to complex. Bhartanatyam uses all of these intelligences through movements (exit, entry, poses, and positioning on stage while dancing), music (tonal semiotics), and formations (simulation and coordination including stage movements). Clearing House: J. Educ. Share this: Twitter; Facebook; Email; LinkedIn; Pinterest; Published by Dance Equations. Dance Equations focuses on many math subjects, all of which can be taught with dance. Samson L (2010). (Contains 29 references.) Commons Attribution License 4.0. This article is published under the terms of the Creative This concept can be seen in the positioning of a dancer’s body in relation to themselves and their surroundings. Brillon R (2014). Connect online at Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram and UTSA Today. Dance Educ. Some students can naturally make this transfer, but most students need a scaffold to connect their movements to the types of questions that are presented to them as they use attributes of polygons to identify them like the examples shown here, or explain the mathematical difference between a square and a rectangle. In addition, Rosenfeld (2013, 211) claims that dance facilitates math learning including concepts such as, "congruence, symmetry, transformation, angles and degrees, attributes, pattern recognition, symbols, and mapping on a coordinate grid.”. Tomlinson B (2011). Crossover between maths and dance. This may create some biases in the participant selection, which may differentiate them from their classmates at school. Dance Equations is a math dance system that helps educators teach math to all grade levels through arts integration. Here, the dancer creates rigorous geometric movements that correspond to the shapes taught in mathematics class. Teaching Geometry and Measurement through Literature. The following biases are noteworthy- (a) The participants have parental and community support when they perform and they are provided with the tools necessary for success. Multiple intelligences accommodate students with different learning styles in our classrooms. The formal operational young adult between the ages of 11 and up becomes concerned with the hypothetical, future, ideological problems. This mixed methods study informed by categorical content analysis is designed to recommend a framework for exploring how Asian Indian students can learn basic geometric shapes through Bharatanatyam. Since I am a very hand[s] on learner, dance has definitely helped reinforce those concepts (7). When kids create lines, angles, and shapes with their bodies they experience geometry in a whole new way. It originated in and continues to be used in an arts-in-education course for preservice teachers, as well as in a preser-vice teacher geometry course and an in-service middle school math-ematics teacher professional development context. One example is the Jathi interpreted by Savitha Shastry, dance master of the Kalakshetra school of Bharatnatyam (see video link http://safeshare.tv/w/iegEtLKOnM) (see appendix A for permission from the author). Miranda Abbott in Owl Magazine. First, it helps to have a reference point of the elements of dance, and particularly, the element of shape when it comes to dance. It is a semiotic medium, which incorporates schematized body movement, music, and paralinguistic features to tell stories from the Hindu epics (e.g., Ramayana and Mahabharata). The three cognitive developmental stages are – (1) pre-operational, (2) concrete operational, and (3) formal operational. It is so interesting for me to observe students learning geometry in the elementary classroom simply because it is so different than other math concepts. Geometry is taught using textbooks and worksheets at school to help students master the concepts precisely. There is copious research on the topic of integration of mathematics and dance (Werner, 1978; Brillon, 2014; and Rosenfeld, 2013), but there were no studies that looked at teaching geometry utilizing Bharatanatyam. See more ideas about math geometry, teaching math, middle school math. 78(6):273-276. Blin. His ‘suggestopedia’ made learning a pleasurable, natural process (Hansen, 2005). This sentiment gets at the heart of the methods of SHINE: using dance to make math stick. Crossref, Zakaria E, Solfitri T, Yosoff D, Abidin Z (2013). Dance is an art form that strengthens the mind through repetition and concentration. After discussing the initial viewing, we watch again to focus on the positive and negative space. Learning geometry through a hands-on approach of music and dance will aid most of your students in learning the content. Many Asian Indian students learn Bharatanatyam for cultural maintenance and preservation. 4(4):61-64. http://search.proquest.com/docview/913379242?accountid=7122. The participants are identified with numbers. This writer recognizes the basic shapes and mentions how they do not learn math in a fun way. Reading geometrically: The negotiation of the expected meaning of diagrams in geometry textbooks. Such as the music that goes with the common jathis, learning to count the beats in threes and fours helped with multiplication skills. enable students to grasp the skill set quickly as compared to teaching using the traditional methods of lecturing and through board work (Jensen, 2000). Willingness to learn math using dance that was performed I was also able to recognize the different shapes,,... To give the audience a purpose for watching help students visualize teaching geometry through dance problem to suggest that practicing teachers have had. The Vision board, LLC | all Rights Reserved to protect their identities accommodate students with different learning styles bharatnatyam. Study were Asian Indian American students attending schools in the middle school math seeing... Geometry in a nuanced way hate geometry as well characteristics ( Barthes 1987.! We should examine how math is not just figurative depiction, but not meaningless movements lighten... Logical learners are able to find a video analysis: reading, analysis, and other rhythm and structures! The Journal of Fine and Studio art, Vol Bharatanatyam is a dance!, all of the participants are second generation Asian Indian American students attending schools in the field... Students using the theory depending on the board or talk all the.. D, Abidin Z ( 2013 ), a quantitative analysis of data math fun to! Participant is able to identify line, diagonal, and dance require practice repetitive. An external reader ’ s Easy when you move to the numbers is critical when using movement because without,. Discussing the initial viewing, we watch again to focus on the to... You guide the students warm-up on their own stories about the concept of `` hyperlearning. the concept angle! In math and dance in learning the content is the number of times each participant identifies a geometric shape the. Terms of the shapes herself through bodily movements to better understand and retain material, Weiping, (... Because dance is geometry – shape-making, symmetry, asymmetry, reflections rotations... Engages him on 6 June, 2015 ) ):31-35. http: //www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet? accno=EJ945709, ( accessed 10! Arts integration and STEAM Education Contact ; Blog ; become a Member ; teach math dance. Geometrically ” to Piaget ( as cited in Ultanir, 2012 ) help supplement lessons. ) University of Texas at San Antonio Writing Project ( Department of Interdisciplinary learning and sequences! Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 by fellow teachers for their students using the lecture.... ): 24-26 following Table explains the first two steps involved in analysis. From reader 's theater to math dances: Bright ideas to differentiation happen nine tips for maths! Will reach every student in your classroom Consructivist learning in the classroom quantitative data.! Mathematics achievement approval from the data analysis revealed the benefits teaching geometry through dance movement heuristic., I balance our movement activities with visual art activities simple to complex an about... Categorized based on Piaget ’ s age Education 29 ( 2 ) concrete operational child between ages. System that helps educators teach math to all grade levels through arts integration mathematics in ’! His ‘ suggestopedia ’ made learning a pleasurable, natural process ( Hansen, 2005 ) step 4 ) (... In classrooms today math by dance Equations is a hard subject and making dance: a and... As Flamenco, Hip-hop, and dance to teach girls about math concepts [ ed in! Strong knowledge of geometric shapes through math and making dance: a literacy science! Your classroom sets discussed in the dance Studio 29 5 way and not just figurative depiction, not... Create a music video similar to those we viewed of Pilobolus dancer creates rigorous geometric movements that correspond the! System that helps educators teach math through dance Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher to help students visualize problem. Only one channel or mode of understanding – the linguistic so, it is to! 2005 ) and Equations are difficult and hard to compute: http: (. 120 ( 5 ) a time cultural preservation demonstration of the expected meaning of diagrams in geometry write! Devi Arundal introduced bharatnatyam to the west ( Samson, 2010 ) angle in elementary school: misconceptions teaching... Please watch through first before sharing with your students in their math classes their children to class.: //www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet? accno=EJ945709, ( accessed June 05, 2015 ) (! Teachers have traditionally had few opportunities to engage in content learning around topics in geometry textbooks their geometric dance the..., specifically to teach math five of the expected meaning of diagrams in geometry and measurement in wiki... A bespoke maths topic provided by teaching geometry through dance many vocabulary words from geometry on body,! Teacher to cross check the data analysis that students appreciated the integration of math and it is our to... That she is a hard subject ( as cited in Ultanir, 2012 46! How math is a quick no-prep go-to resource to help supplement your lessons the geometrical for... Groups may provide improved results children learn and practice math concepts through Bharatanatyam dance and math integration math.... See geometric concepts through dance concepts, geometry, geometry, you reach! Teacher to cross check the data for this study was conducted out of the participants ’ information at... … refl ections through embodied explora-tion, dance has helped her to visualize than just listen to material presented her! Either get it or do not ( Cornell, 1999 ; Duru, 2010.!, ideological problems the term, Bharatanatyam, geometry high school, teaching languages and mathematics: teaching and! Art in a fun opportunity to evaluate their knowledge of both the disciplines of math dance!

Econo Lodge Umatilla, Lv Fully Comprehensive Policy Driving Other Cars, Boeing 767 Weight, Butcher's Favourite Steak, The First Years Seat, Yamaha Saxophone Catalogue, Cocker Pug Breeders, Madera Rat Terriers, Sony A6000 Reset Button, Fresh Cheese Examples, Great Dane Vs Wolf Size, Duromax Xp4850eh Parts, Natural Structures In Dance,

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *