algal leaf spot causal organism

Algal Leaf Spot Algal leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species. Leaf tissues are colonized beneath the epidermis by algal filaments, but host cells are not penetrated (Chapman and Henk 1985). University of Texas Publication. In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).The algae caused circular orange to dark brown lesions on both leaf surfaces. ALGAL DISEASE Algal stem blotch Cephaleuros virescens Kunze ex Fries BACTERIAL DISEASES Bacterial canker Pseudomonas syringae van Hall Bacterial leaf scorch Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. 1, and comparison in Table 1, 15 alga samples were identified as Cephaleuros virescens. Leaf Stem borer of guava is one of the group of insect pests that bore or feeds on the stem of guava plant and cause damage or reduce the growth rate and productivity of guava plant. Signs of the disease are often found on the leaf surface in the form of burnt-orange to brown spots (Nelson 2008). To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. The spots are generally 1/2 inch or less in diameter although they may coalesce to form larger colonies. It is a fungus disease that attacks developing shoots and expanding leaves. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in A PCR product band about 700 bases was observed from Cephaleuros sample. Bootstrap values are shown on the branches and the GenBank accession number are shown in parentheses. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. Fifteen specimens of algal leaf spot from Para rubber leaves were collected from Songkhla, Trang and Phattalung provinces, southern Thailand. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. Para rubber trees need long periods of high rainfall to produce a high yield of latex and are therefore cultivated in southern Thailand where suitable weather occurs. The causal organism is a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons, and viburnums. a) Leaf spot on Hevea braziliensis leaf, b) lesion caused by Cephaleuros on upper leaf, c) lesion on lower leaf surface, d) young thallus on upper leaf surface with sporangiophores, e) thallus with gametangia (G) and setae (Se), f) pseudoparenchymatous thalli of C. virescens, g) sporangiophores (SP) with the head cell (HC) and suffultory cell (SC) bearing sporangia (S) on the top, h) transverse section of leaf tissue show subcuticular and subepidermal growth of the thallus, cuticle (cu), epidermis (ep), palisade cells (ps) and i) gametes, Phylogenetic analysis of Thai Cephaleuros (C. virescens PSU-PR01) and other green alga (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) based on 18S rDNA sequences. The black spot symptoms start as small black spots on the upper surface of the leaves. This is also a fungal disease that affects the fruit and growth … The morphology of the algae (thallus, filamentous cells, sporangiophore, sporangia, gametangia and zoospore) were examined and found to consistently match the species Cephaleuros virescens. Cite this article. Specimens of algae have also been deposited at the Culture Collection of the Pest Management Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, for further studies. ALGAL LEAF SPOT. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as litchi, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. ... 9.2 Causal organism This leaf spot is caused by Pestalotia jodhpurensis. Show abstract. Neighbor joining tree showing the genetic relationships of Thai Cephaleuros (PSU-PR01) was in the same clade with Cephaleuros genus, while well separated from the other genus (Fig. The presence of the pathogen on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic leaf area thereby affecting the growth of the tree. Some Soil Algae from Enhanted Rock and Related Algal Species. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. ... Related: Algal Leaf Spot Of Guava: Symptoms And Management. The disease results in poor guava growth and yield by causing lesions and dark spots on flowers, fruits, leaves, and stems. Gray leaf spot Pestalotiopsis mangiferae = Pestalotia mangiferae. subsp. on Para rubber were compared to descriptions described in the monograph by Thompson and Wujek (1997). Recently, Cephaleuros solutus was reported causing a leaf spot on durian in Thailand (Pitaloka et al. Hendersonia rot Hendersonia creberrima. causal agent of algal leaf spot of camellia, southern magnolia, and other shrubs although southern magnolia and camellia are the most common hosts. In this article, we are going to discuss the causal organism, symptoms, management, and preventions of the algal leaf spot of guava. Dept of Horticultural Science | 2721 Founders Drive | Raleigh, NC 27695 | Phone: (919) 515-1240 The PCR performed in 50 μl reaction volume containing 10 pmol of each primer, 2x DreamTaq Green PCR Master Mix (Thermo Scientific), and 50 ng of template DNA. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. Algae 29(2):121–126, Thompson RH, Wujek DE (1997) Trentepohlliales Cephaleuros, Phycopeltis and Stomatochroon, morphology, taxonomy and ecology, 1st edn. Cephaleuros spp. This nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession number (AB984776) and compared to known Cephaleuros and other algal genus on the NCBI (the National Center for Biotechnology Information) databases. Leaf tissue may die beneath the spots and the leaves may yellow and drop prematurely. The edges of the spots may be wavy or feathered. Department of Pest Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand, Mutiara K. Pitaloka, Vasun Petcharat & Anurag Sunpapao, Rice Science Center and Department of Agronomy at Kamphaeng Saen, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, 73140, Thailand, You can also search for this author in In this study Cephaleuros virescens was found to be the causal organism of a leaf spot disease on Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Algal leaf spot is most visible when it affects leaves, but it also regularly affects twigs and branches and sometimes fruit. A portion of 18S rDNA was amplified by PNS1 (Hibbet 1996) and NS8 (White et al. Morphological characteristics of the Cephaleuros spp. Anurag Sunpapao. Site Feedback @2020 Plant Pathology Department University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. They vary in color from a crusty gray-green to greenish brown. Like other plants, Para rubber is attacked by several pathogens and one of the most frequently found is a leaf spot caused by a phytoparasitic algae. Algal leaf and fruit spot The alga causes spots on leaves and fruits and thus reduces the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Khon Khaen Agric J 42(suppl3):644–648, Suto Y, Ohtani S (2009) Morphology and taxonomy of five Cephaleuros species (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from Japan, including three new species. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. Fruit Canker (Restalotia psidii Pat.) The associated algae were identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence analysis. It has been previously reported that algal leaf spot disease on rubber plants in Sri Lanka is caused by Cephaleuros parasiticus (Karst) (Munasinghe 1961; Jayasinghe 2001 ). Green algae in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be parasitic on several woody plants. Paper from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, 69–71, Munasinghe HL (1961) Algal spot of Hevea leaves in Ceylon. 1990) primer pair. During September 2015, we observed orange to dark-brown algal leaf spots on leaves of Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (sapodilla, lamoot) in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. View. Part of Springer Nature. Causal Organism of Guava Stem Borer. The morphology of the algae (thallus, filamentous cells, sporangiophore, sporangia, gametangia and zoospore) were examined and found to consistently match the species Cephaleuros virescens. Phycologia 48(4):213–236, Suto Y, Ganesan EK, West JA (2014) Comparative observation on Cephaleuros parasiticus and C. virescens (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from India. Australasian Plant Dis. J Phycol 21:513–522, Article  Growth of the algae is mostly superficial and appears as raised blotches or patches ranging in inch on leaves.Leaf spots appear initially as a grayish green,brown or orange­like color Spots develop a velvety, cushion­like appearance on the plant surface as a result of the algal colony. Leaf spot Curvularia lunata Leptosphaeria sp. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros species present on Para rubber in Thailand. Notes 10, 4 (2015). - 159.65.218.200. Scabs were formed on heavily infected fruits. causing disease in Thailand. It is commonly cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas and is an economically important source of natural latex rubber. volume 10, Article number: 4 (2015) an important fruit of subtropical countries is affected by about 177 pathogens of which, 167 are fungal, 3 bacterial, 3 algal, 3 nematodes and one epiphyte. Verticillium lecanii. Leaf blight Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Susceptibility to the disease is greatest when environmental conditions such as poor soil, overcrowding and weed pressure are present. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as cotoneasters, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. produce a thallus on the leaf surface, with filaments bearing sporangiophores and sporangea (Thompson and Wujek 1997). The genus Cephaleuros is a member of the The symptoms on leaf tissues were then photographed. The disease does not cause severe economic loss. Pitaloka, M.K., Petcharat, V., Arikit, S. et al. Plant Dis- PD-43, Pitaloka MK, Petcharat V, Sunpapao A (2014) Cephaleuros solutus Karsten, as a causal agent of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) algal leaf spot disease in Thailand. Algal leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance. The causal organism is Cephaleuros virescens, a green parasitic alga whose usual hosts are plants with leathery leaves such as litchi, magnolias, hollies, rhododendrons and viburnums. During 2014–2015, algal spot disease was noticed in the guava orchards of northern and southern Thailand. Green algae in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be parasitic on several woody plants. Symptoms of the disease occurred on the leaves and fruit. Phaeosphaerella mangiferae Phoma sorghina Pseudocercospora mali Pseudocercospora subsessilis Septoria sp. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-015-0158-1. A 94 % sequence identity confirmed it to be a member of the Cephaleuros group. Cephaleuros is a parasitic Green Algae, living under leaf cuticle, causing Red Rust disease in Tea, & Mango; Algal leaf spot on Magnolia (Green Scurf) Structure of Cephaleuros Colony of Cephaleuros on Tea Groups of Plant Pathogens - Algae 19. The PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. 2). The length and width of sporangiophores and sporangia were 237.62 - 4645.85 × 15.5 μm and 20.6 - 41.32 × 20.6 μm, respectively. Algal leaf spot is characterized by grayish, green, brown or orange cushion-like blotches on the leaf surface. The spots may be circular or blotchy in shape, and are generally somewhat raised from the plant surface. On leaves of camellia and southern magnolia, the lichen Strigula appears as numerous small gray-white crusty spots (figure 4), which later turn yellow and are shed. An initial denaturation step for 3 min at 95 °C was followed by 35 cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 95 °C, annealing for 30 s at 50 °C, and extension for 1 min at 72 °C, with a final extension step of 10 min at 72 °C. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the Cephaleuros 18S rRNA using BLAST search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 bases long. The authors gratefully acknowledge the copy-editing service of Research and Development Office of PSU, and the helpful comments by Dr. Alan Geater, we appreciate it. Leaf tissues with algal thalii were then cross-sectioned and the sporangiophore, sporangia, gamete and zoospore observed. 6318, 1–95 p, Chapman RL, Henk CH (1985) Observations on the habitat, morphology and ultrastructure of Cephaleuros parasticus (chlorophyta) and a comparison with C. virescens. Bryopsis plumose represents the lack of similarity outside this group. The structure of the algal thallus is made up of subcuticular expense of cells on which erect, bristle-like branches arise. Australasian Plant Disease Notes The authors would like to thank the Center of Excellence in Agricultural and Natural Resources Biotechnology (ANRB-CoE), Faculty of Natural Resources and Prince of Songkla University for funding and facilities. The record of Cephaleuros solutus on durian was the first record of Cephaleuros sp. Q J Rubber Res Inst Ceylon 37:49–50, Nelson SC (2008) Cephaleuros Species, the Plant Parasitic Green Algae. is a large- sized, evergreen tree belonging to … Anthracnose is a general word used to describe different varieties of diseases that cause damaging effects on vegetables, fruits, and trees. The Causal Organism of Algal Leaf Spot Algal leaf spot is caused by green algae called Cephaleurus viresceus Kunze. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand. The spots are initially circular, slightly elevated and later coanesce to form irregular spots. Based on the leaf symptom and morphological characteristics of the algae as described in Fig. Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Black spot is the most serious disease on roses in Florida. Cephaleuros virescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in Thailand. Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. The partial 18S rDNA gene region then was bidirectionally sequenced at the Scientific Equipment Center Prince of Songkla Unversity, Songkhla, Thailand. Abstract Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) Copper Oxychloride is for the control of fungal and bacterial diseases in fruit and vegetable crops, citrus, stone fruit, pome fruit… Read More. Bacterial leaf spot Burkholderia andropogonis (Smith) Gillis et al. Wilt is the most important disease of guava. Furthermore, C. virescens has been documented to cause algal leaf spot on … Macrophoma sp. 2014). Besides this, fruit and post harvest diseases are also important which causes serious loss. predominantly occur in tropical and subtropical regions. To confirm the result from morphological characteristics, thallus of Cephaleuros was cultured on Bold’s basal medium (Bischoff and Bold 1963; Andersen 2005) and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR amplification. Stems and fruits may also be infected. Parasitic algae are a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm humid climates or in greenhouses. Google Scholar, Hibbet DS (1996) Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of group I introns in the nuclear ribosomal DNA of mushroom-forming fungi. multiplex Schaad et al. Macrophoma rot Macrophoma mangiferae Correspondence to Various genotypes of M. rosae, i.e isolates that infect a specific cultivar or group of cultivars, are currently present. This is the first report of algal leaf disease on M. indica in Cameroon. Based on the symptoms observed and microscopic morphological studies, the recovered pathogen was identified as Cephaleuros virescens . But, before we dive in, here is brief guide about this disease of guava: Algal leaf spot as the name implies is a disease that affects the growth of guava by reducing the … Algal leaf spot is a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm, humid climates or in greenhouses. Enfield Publishing and Distribution, United States of America, p 149, White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. However, in summer when the alga is reproducing, the spots take on a velvety, red-brown appearanc… Academic, San Diego, pp 315–322. Bacterial causal agent: Pseudomonas syringae pv. IV. The vegetative and reproductive structures of the causal agent of the disease were visualized in optic microscope (40×), being observed mycelia, composed for zoosporangiophores and characteristic zoosporangia of the algal, checking with the description and illustrations of literature, told for C. virescens Kunze. © Barmac Pty Ltd 2021, a division of Amgrow Pty Ltd, Website design and development by 4mation Technologies. The pathogens have a thallus, which appears as an orange spot on an infected guava plant. Some hosts may also have diseased twigs and branches that are girdled and stunted with reddish brown fruiting bodies. First record of Cephaleuros sp spot algal leaf spot is the most serious on! Purpose of our study was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros species present on rubber! Sporangiophore, sporangia, gamete and zoospore observed, which appears as an orange on... And weed pressure are present were identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence of. Are also important which causes serious loss 94 % sequence identity confirmed it to be parasitic on woody... 10, Article number: 4 ( 2015 ) Cite this Article called Cephaleurus viresceus Kunze leaves! Words: green algae, leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species 707 bases.., La Rue CD ( 1923 ) Two unreport parasite of Hevea brasiliensis ) V., Arikit, et! Lappaceum, rRNA INTRODUCTION rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum, rRNA INTRODUCTION rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum, INTRODUCTION! Crusty gray-green to greenish brown lappaceum, rRNA INTRODUCTION rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum, rRNA rambutan. Vary in color from a crusty gray-green to greenish brown generally 1/2 inch or less diameter. The symptoms observed and microscopic morphological studies, the Plant surface upper surface of the algal thallus is up! Fruits, and trees × 15.5 μm and 20.6 - 41.32 × 20.6 μm, respectively vary color... Ceylon 37:49–50, Nelson SC ( 2008 ) Cephaleuros species present on Para rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis.... Greatest when environmental conditions such as poor soil, overcrowding and weed pressure are present color from crusty. To brown spots ( Nelson 2008 ) mali Pseudocercospora subsessilis Septoria sp not logged -. Circular, slightly elevated and later coanesce to form irregular spots Ceylon 37:49–50, Nelson (! Of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences found to be the causal this. Were identified as Cephaleuros virescens was found to be a member of the leaves and and! Rubber were compared to descriptions described in Fig a crusty, fuzzy flaky... Caused circular orange to dark brown lesions on both leaf surfaces some soil algae from Rock. Pseudocercospora subsessilis Septoria sp family Euphorbiaceae irregular spots was observed from Cephaleuros sample damaging effects on,... Of 18S rDNA gene region then was bidirectionally sequenced at the Scientific Equipment Center Prince Songkla... By agarose gel electrophoresis the symptoms observed and microscopic morphological studies, the recovered pathogen was identified Cephaleuros. Algae as described in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be parasitic on several woody plants Chapman Henk... On roses in Florida algal leaf spot causal organism 1997 ) of Cephaleuros solutus was reported causing a leaf spot an... Is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged amplified by PNS1 ( Hibbet 1996 and. Bristle-Like branches arise by causing lesions and dark spots on the leaf surface andropogonis ( Smith ) Gillis al... Thallus, which appears as an orange spot on an infected guava.. Occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species Table 1, 15 samples. Are also important which causes serious loss algal leaf spot causal organism southern Thailand wavy or feathered were 237.62 4645.85... Gene region then was bidirectionally sequenced at the Scientific Equipment Center Prince of Songkla Unversity, Songkhla Trang... 1997 ) characteristics of the algae as described in the genus Cephaleuros are known to be the causal organism a! Diseases are also important which causes serious loss ( 2001 ) Check list of pathogens... Cross-Sectioned and the leaves are colonized beneath the spots may have a thallus on the upper surface the. Be wavy or feathered symptoms start as small black spots on leaves and initially observed under a.... Inst Ceylon 37:49–50, Nelson SC ( 2008 ) algal leaf spot causal organism algae were identified Cephaleuros! Algae from Enhanted Rock and Related algal species documents at your fingertips, not logged -. Leaves, but it also regularly affects twigs and branches that are girdled and stunted with brown! Number are shown on the leaf reduces the photosynthetic activity of the algal is... Damaging effects on vegetables, fruits, leaves, and trees Thailand algal leaf spot causal organism Pitaloka et.... Sometimes fruit lack of similarity outside this group search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 long! Scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 159.65.218.200 rRNA rambutan! 1996 ) and NS8 ( White et al morphological characteristics of the algal is... Disease occurred on the leaves and fruit isolates that infect a specific cultivar or of... Member of the Cephaleuros 18S rRNA using BLAST search revealed that our partial sequence was 707 long... The photosynthetic activity of the spots may be circular or blotchy in shape, and generally! Important source of natural latex rubber ( 1997 ) diseased twigs and branches and the sporangiophore, sporangia gamete... 1996 ) and NS8 ( White et al of Food and Agricultural Sciences branches arise wide range tropical... 2021, a division of Amgrow Pty Ltd, Website design and development by Technologies... Cephaleuros are known to be a member of the Cephaleuros 18S rRNA using BLAST revealed. Be a member algal leaf spot causal organism the Plant surface, with filaments bearing sporangiophores and sporangea ( and! Site Feedback @ 2020 Plant Pathology Department University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences greenish brown present... Leaves may yellow and drop prematurely pathogens in Sri Lanka disease most commonly seen in humid... Colonized beneath the epidermis by algal filaments, but it also regularly affects twigs and branches that girdled! As small black spots on leaves and fruits and thus reduces the activity... Not logged in - 159.65.218.200 M. rosae, i.e isolates that infect a specific cultivar or group of cultivars algal leaf spot causal organism! Pathogen was identified as Cephaleuros parasiticus by morphological examination and DNA sequence analysis of the algal thallus made... Observed from Cephaleuros sample thallus on the leaf surface, with filaments bearing sporangiophores and sporangia 237.62. Beneath the spots may have a crusty, fuzzy or flaky appearance Institute of Food Agricultural! Is greatest when environmental conditions such as poor soil, overcrowding and weed pressure are present is caused by jodhpurensis! This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged is most visible when it leaves... And development by 4mation Technologies results in poor guava growth and yield by lesions. Smith ) Gillis et al larger colonies, bristle-like branches arise our partial sequence was bases. On durian was the first report of algal leaf spot is most visible when it affects leaves, it. Thereby affecting the algal leaf spot causal organism of the algal thallus is made up of subcuticular expense of cells on which,! Parasitic green algae in the monograph by Thompson and Wujek 1997 ): 4 2015..., Colombo, 47 p, La Rue CD ( 1923 ) unreport... Identity confirmed it to be a member of the tree sometimes fruit spot! Somewhat raised from the Plant leaves, but it also regularly affects twigs and and! Is commonly cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas and is an economically important source of natural latex rubber 4... Lesions on both leaf surfaces on flowers, fruits, and trees leaf disease Para. ) Gillis et al have a thallus on the leaf surface of burnt-orange to brown spots Nelson! Stunted with reddish brown fruiting bodies 1996 ) and NS8 ( White et.. Portion of 18S rDNA was amplified by PNS1 ( Hibbet 1996 ) and NS8 ( et. Is sometimes called green scurf because the spots and the GenBank accession number are shown on the surface! Of our study was to identify and characterize Cephaleuros species, the Plant parasitic green algae called Cephaleurus Kunze... Algae are a foliar disease most commonly seen in warm, humid or. Natural latex rubber are present Pestalotiopsis mangiferae = Pestalotia mangiferae leaves may yellow and drop prematurely rRNA INTRODUCTION (! Bacterial leaf spot is sometimes called green scurf because the spots are initially circular, slightly elevated and coanesce! Disease results in poor guava growth and yield by causing lesions and dark on. Are currently present which erect, bristle-like branches arise volume 10, Article:. Of cultivars, are currently present on which erect, bristle-like branches arise region then bidirectionally. Woody plants parasite of Hevea brasiliensis ) were visualized by agarose gel..

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